# PHP Math Functions

In this tutorial we will learn some of the basic math functions used in PHP.

## abs()

This function returns the absolute (positive) value of the given number.

Syntax

`abs(number)`

For Ex.

```<?php
echo abs(7.8)."<br>";
echo abs(-7.8)."<br>";
echo abs(-7)."<br>";
echo abs(7)."<br>";
?>```

Output

```7.8
7.8
7
7```

## ceil()

This function rounds up the given number to the nearest integer number.

Syntax

`ceil(number)`

## floor()

This function rounds down the given number to the nearest integer number.

Syntax

`floor(number)`

## round()

This function rounds a given floating point number.

Syntax

`round(number)`

For Ex.

```<?php
echo ceil(7.8)."<br>";
echo floor(7.8)."<br>";
echo round(7.3)."<br>";
echo round(7.6)."<br>";
?>```

Output

```8
7
7
8```

As you can see from the above example ceil() function rounds up the floating point number 7.8 to 8 same way floor() function rounds down the floating point number 7.8 to 7 and round() function rounds the floating point number on basis of the entered value if the value after point is >= .5 than it rounds up the value otherwise it rounds down the value to nearest integer.

## pow()

This function returns x raised to the power of y.

Syntax

`pow(x,y)`

For Ex.

```<?php
echo pow(2,3)."<br>";
echo pow(3,2)."<br>";
?>```

Output

```8
9```

## sqrt()

This function returns the square root of the entered number.

Syntax

`sqrt(number)`

For Ex.

```<?php
echo sqrt(4)."<br>";
echo sqrt(9)."<br>";
?>```

Output

```2
3```

## exp()

This function returns e raised to the power of given number.

Syntax

`exp(number)`

For Ex.

```<?php
echo exp(1)."<br>";
echo exp(2)."<br>";
?>```

Output

```2.718281828459
7.3890560989307```

## decbin()

This function converts the entered decimal number into binary number.

Syntax

`decbin(number)`

## dechex()

This function converts the entered decimal number into hexadecimal number.

Syntax

`dechex(number)`

## decoct()

This function converts the entered decimal number into octal number.

Syntax

`decoct(number)`

For Ex.

```<?php
echo "Hexadecimal value of 10 = ".dechex(10)."<br>";
echo "Octal value of 10 = ".decoct(10)."<br>";
echo "Binary value of 10 = ".decbin(10)."<br>";
?>```

Output

```Hexadecimal value of 10 = a
Octal value of 10 = 12
Binary value of 10 = 1010```

## bindec()

This function converts the entered binary number into decimal number.

Syntax

`bindec(number)`

## octdec()

This function converts the entered octal number into decimal number.

Syntax

`octdec(number)`

## hexdec()

This function converts the entered hexadecimal number into decimal number.

Syntax

`hexdec(number)`

For Ex.

```<?php
echo hexdec('a')."<br>";
echo octdec(12)."<br>";
echo bindec(1010)."<br>";
?>```

Output

```10
10
10```

## fmod()

This function returns the remainder of modulo division of x with y.

Syntax

`fmod(x,y)`

For Ex.

```<?php
echo fmod(10,3)."<br>";
echo fmod(13,5)."<br>";
?>```

Output

```1
3```

## max()

This function returns the highest value among the given set of values or the highest value in array.

Syntax.

`max(numeric_array) or max(numeric_values)`

For Ex.

```<?php
\$a=array(23,21,12,34,13);
echo "Maximum Value in array = ".max(\$a)."<br>";
?>```

Output

`Maximum Value in array = 34`

## min()

This function returns the minimum value among the given set of values or the minimum value in array.

Syntax.

`min(numeric_array) or min(numeric_values)`

For Ex.

```<?php
\$a=array(23,21,12,34,13);
echo "Minimum Value in array = ".min(\$a)."<br>";
?>```

Output

`Minimum Value in array = 12`

Note that max() and min() can also be used with set of numeric values as argument in place of array.

## sin() , cos() , tan()

This functions returns the sine, cosine and tangent of a given number.

Syntax

```sin(number)
cos(number)
tan(number)```

For Ex.

```<?php
echo "sin(45) = ".sin(45)."<br>";
echo "cos(45) = ".cos(45)."<br>";
echo "tan(45) = ".tan(45)."<br>";
?>```

Output

```sin(45) = 0.85090352453412
cos(45) = 0.52532198881773
tan(45) = 1.6197751905439```

To conclude in this tutorial we have learnt math functions used in PHP which will be very useful for mathematical calculations.