MongoDB Design and its architecture – a detailed explanation

Priyanka Patke 11th Dec 2020

MongoDB is an open-source database that uses a document-oriented data model and non-structured query languages to store a high volume of data. Instead of using tables and rows in the database, it makes the best use of collections and documents.

The document consists of key-values that are essential for data units in MongoDB. A collection contains a set of documents and functions that are equivalent to a relational database.

MongoDB allows it to have several fields and structures. It stores files in BSON (Binary) and JSON (Java) formats.

In the MongoDB database, there exists no downtime when you want to make any changes to schemas. Additionally, MongoDB's database is more flexible, allowing it to combine and store data in multiple formats. Therefore, there are no requirements for indexing, data access, and validation rules.

Now you can put your concentration on building your database stronger, rather than spending a lot of your valuable time preparing it from scratch.

Also read: How to install MongoDB in Windows

MongoDB Features

MongoDB Features

  • Each database consists of a collection that contains many documents. And each of them can be unique with a varying number of fields and sizes that differ from each other.
  • The document structure is more streamlined with how developers construct their classes and objects with the programming languages they are using. Here the databases are not in rows and columns. They instead have a clear structure, along with key-value pairs.
  • The data models available within MongoDB allows the database users to establish hierarchical relationships, to store arrays and other complex data structures easily.

MongoDB Design and Architecture With NoSQL Database

MongoDB Design


A database is where tons of data get stored or a container for the data. Each database contains its own set of files and can have multiple databases.

Also read: Top 5 Design Patterns Used In PHP Applications


A collection is a group of documents, or you can say it as the RDBMS equivalent to the same in a table. There is no schema when it comes to the collection, and the entire collection exists in a single dataset. Each document within it contains varied data fields, but they will all serve the same goals and purposes.


The document gets linked with dynamic schemas as they are a set of key-value pairs. With dynamic schemas, documents in one collection do not need to go through the same structures or fields.


The _id part is the most crucial part of every database document. The _id represents a unique value in a MongoDB document, which you can say is the primary key. Therefore, MongoDB will automatically create an ID field for your document if you did not make a new one.


It is analogous relational databases and is the value pair in a document, which contains zero or more fields.


The cursor is a pointer to the result set of the query where clients iterate multiple times through a cursor to retrieve results.


JSON stands for Javascript Object Notation, which is a human-readable, plain text for expressing structure data.

Benefits of Using MongoDB

Benefits of MongoDB

Document Oriented:

Since MongoDB is a database with NoSQL, it stores data directly in documents instead of managing them into relational databases. All these top-notch features make MongoDB more adaptable for all kinds of business situations and requirements.

Ad Hoc Queries:

MongoDB supports multiple ways of searching. Using MongoDB, you can search by field, range queries, and regular expression searches. Queries will help you find specific fields within the documents.


It helps in improving the performance of the searches within MongoDB. This is the way of arranging documents depending on the priorities. You can index any field using MongoDB.

Also read: Simple Mysql CRUD Operation in CodeIgniter with Example


It's the other way of saying the exact copy of the databases for two or more MongoDB instances. Each replica set consists of a primary or secondary copy of the dataset. The primary dataset is the prime server that communicates with the client. The secondary replicas maintain copies of the primary datasets. So whenever at any case if the primary fails, the secondary becomes its concurrent substitution and becomes the primary one.

Load Balancing:

MongoDB uses the concept of sharding to scale horizontally by splitting data into multiple instances. MongoDB runs on more than one platform, balancing load from both ends. By enabling a database backup; ensures that in case of a failure, the database won't be affected.

Modeling Data Using MongoDB

Modeling Data Using MongoDB

Data Modeling is yet so elastic and robust in the case of MongoDB. And unlike SQL databases, where data gets stored in table formats in rows and columns. The real issue here is that you have to have a schema declared for inserting data into it, and MongoDB is so flexible with it.

Some Pro Tips To Keep In Mind For Modeling Data In Mongodb

  • For the best application of MongoDB, look for the types of data that businesses need for its application, and then the structure of the data gets decided accordingly.
  • When you see massive data patterns, consider indexing to the data model to improve the efficiencies of queries.
  • If you are doing some of the operations frequently like new updates and removing, then never forget to use indexing or incorporate sharding, and it will increase the efficiency of the overall MongoDB database.

Also read: Redis vs. Memcached: A detailed comparison

Advantages of MongoDB

Advantages of MongoDB

Distributed Data Platform

With no downtime and no requirement in the change in your applications, MongoDB is the most dynamic database with globally distributed datasets and cloud regions. Along with that, MongoDB has the best uses for new levels of availability and scalability. And again, it is more flexible that gives a slight edge over various data centers and maintaining consistency.

Fast and Iterative

MongoDB comes with a dynamic schema that will no longer affect the successful project. With powerful GUI and command-line tools, it becomes easy for developers to develop new applications.

Also read: How to Install GitHub Desktop – Setting up GitHub like a Pro

Super Flexible Data Models With MongoDB

MongoDB stores data in JSON documents that make combining data easy. The application code maps the document model that makes work very simple and easy. Even so, its highly flexible and dynamic modification of schema makes it easier for developers to get their work done.

Integrated Features Set That Reduces The Total Cost

In MongoDB, real-time analytics is easy to visualize because data visualization on text, graph processing, and in-memory processing is safer than RDBMS. Again MongoDB is more reliable and easy to replicate data so that you never have to worry about the loss of data or system failure. Unlike RDBMS, which requires separate integration as well as complicated technologies.

Where can you use MongoDB applications?

MongoDB applications

The MongoDB database has a wide range of applications in BigData and Hadoop for working on Humongous datasets. Although MongoDB and SQL are databases, MongoDB’s efficiencies give an extra edge for successfully deploying on the various unstructured format of data with dynamic schemas.


MongoDB is a robust NoSQL database that most of the world's biggest corporations and organizations use. With a highly flexible option, MongoDB is one of the favorite databases for many fortune 500 companies. And the professionals who have acquired various skills working on MongoDB can expect a massive soar in their careers in years to come. Due to its versatile and more scalable option, MongoDB has a wide range of applications in storing social media data, mobile applications data, and all unstructured data.

Authored By Priyanka Patke

She is a digital marketing executive at Excelr Solution and managing content marketing related tasks. Worked in different domains with 4 years of experience.
Related Reading - Correlation vs Covariance

Also on DiscussDesk